This paper studies the performance based vulnerability assessment of midrise masonry structures against seismic activity using Extreme Loading® for Structures (ELS).
A thorough four-step performance-based seismic evaluation for a six-story unreinforced masonry building is conducted. Incremental dynamic analysis is carried out using the applied element method to take advantage of its ability to simulate progressive collapse of the masonry structure including out-of-plane failure of the walls. The distribution of the structural responses and inters-tory drifts from the incremental dynamic analysis curves are used to develop both spectral-based (Sa) and displacement-based (interstory drift) fragility curves at three structural performance levels. The curves resulting from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses using unidirectional ground motions are combined using the weakest link theory to propose combined fragility curves. Finally, the mean annual frequencies of exceeding the three performance levels are calculated using the spectral acceleration values at four probability levels 2%, 5%, 10%, and 40% in 50 years. The method is shown to be useful for seismic vulnerability evaluations in regions where little observed damage data exists.
Karbassi A., Nollet M. Performance-Based Seismic Vulnerability Evaluation of Masonry Buildings Using Applied Element Method in a Nonlinear Dynamic-Based Analytical Procedure: Earthquake Spectra: May 2013, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 399-426.