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Reducing Cost on Progressive Collapse

In recent years progressive collapse analysis has materialized into explicit requirements for redundancy in building codes all over the world. Although progressive collapse is a nonlinear dynamic procedure, progressive collapse codes permit the use of linear static analysis combined with some load factors.

In many cases a simplistic procedure is used, which models only linear beam and column elements. This neglects the contribution of walls and slabs, leading to uneconomic and/or unconservative results. Walls and slabs may be considered secondary members in other types of analysis but in progressive collapse analysis, walls and slabs often behave as primary members with slabs carrying load though membrane action and walls providing alternate load paths in case of loss of columns.

In a comparison study, ASI found that analysis using simplified finite element linear and nonlinear analysis suggested a significant increase in the weight of the steel frame is required to satisfy the UFC progressive collapse code requirements. Using more advanced analysis, like Extreme Loading® for Structures (ELS) software shows that the original design required little to no increase in weight required.

Analysis

Structure Weight % Increase Required

SFEM Linear

108.7 Tons 80%

SFEM Nonlinear

78.2 Tons 34%

ELS

58.2 Tons 0%
Weight of longitudinal steel moment-resisting frame resulting from design using different numerical analysis methods.

Download the full White Paper:

UFC Progressive Collapse: Material Cost Savings White Paper


Progressive Collapse Analysis is a Must

Currently, there is an international movement updating structural design requirements to explicitly design structures to resist progressive collapse. Among the codes that were recently updated to require progressive collapse analysis are:

  • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE/SEI 7-05)
  • American Concrete Institute (ACI318-05)
  • National Building Code of Canada (NBC 2005)
  • International Building Code (IBC 2009)
  • Eurocode 1
  • British Standard Institute (BS 5950-2000)
  • Saudi Building Code (SBC 301-2007)

Additionally, many governmental bodies have released specific codes relevant to the design of special structures to resist progressive collapse. [US General Services Administration, US Department of Defense, and US Federal Highway Administration.]

Progressive Collapse Analysis is a Must